Carnatic music (2 of 2)

vissa@cortex.neuro.mssm.edu
Thu, 16 May 1996 11:29:48 -0500

Carnatic Music (2 of 2)

Variations of 'sapta svarAs' in Carnatic music
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Indicating svaramu Names of variations Number of
Letter variations
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'sa' shadjamamu 'Suddha' 1

'ri' rishabhamu 'Suddha', 'catu Sruti', and 'shaT chruti' 3

'ga' gAndhAramu 'Suddha', 'sAdhAraNa' and 'aMtara' 3

'ma' madhyamamu 'Suddha' and 'prati' 2

'pa' pancamamu 'Suddha' 1

'dha' dhaivatamu 'Suddha', 'catu Sruti' and 'shaT chruti' 3

'ni' nishAdamu 'Suddha', 'kaiSika' and 'kAkali' 3
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However, while forming 'rAgAs' based on the 'sound', the following four sounds are said to be equivalent or 'duplicates'.

catu Sruti 'ri ' = Suddha 'ga'
shaT chruti 'ri' = sAdhAraNa 'ga'
catuu Sruti 'dha' = Suddha 'ni'
shaT chruti 'dha' = kaiSika 'ni'

Hence, there are only (16 - 4=)12 effective 'svarAs' to frame or form 'rAgAs'.

'svara' and 'mELa karta rAga' chart of Carnatic music
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numbers of the 'rAgAs' 'ri' 'ga' 'ma'
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1 2 3 4 5 6 Su Su Su

7 8 9 10 11 12 Su sA Su

13 14 15 16 17 18 Su aM Su

19 20 21 22 23 24 ca sA Su

25 26 27 28 29 30 ca aM Su

31 32 33 34 35 36 sha aM Su

37 38 39 40 41 42 Su Su pra

43 44 45 46 47 48 Su sA pra

49 50 51 52 53 54 Su aM pra

55 56 57 58 59 60 ca sA pra

61 62 63 64 65 66 ca aM pra

67 68 69 70 71 72 sha aM pra ___________________________________________________ ___________________
'dha' Su Su Su ca ca sha
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'ni' Su kai kA kai kA kA
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'sa' and 'pa' having no variations in them are always used as 'Suddha' in every one of these 'rAgAs'. The names of each 'rAga', corresponding to its number is given below. The 'svarAs' for each 'rAga' can be identified from the above chart.

How to read the above chart?
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# of rAga sa ri ga ma pa dha ni _______________________________________________________________________
The 1 st rAga has Su Su Su Su Su Su Su
The 4 th rAga has Su Su Su Su Su ca kai
The 16 th rAga has Su Su aM Su Su ca kA
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The above order goes as 'ArOhaNa' and 'avarOhaNa' will be in the reverse order, i.e., ni, dha, pa, ma, ga, ri, sa.

The following are the names of the Carnatic 'mELakarta rAgAs', as per the numbers in the chart above.

1. kankAngi 2. ratnAngi 3. gAnamUrti
4. vanaspati 5. mAnavati 6. tAnarUpi
7. sEnApati 8. hanumattODi 9. dhEnuka
10. nATaka priya 11. kOkila priya 12. rUpavati
13. gAyaka priya 14. vakuLA bharaNaM 15. mAyA mALava gaULa
16. cakravAkam 17. sUryakantaM 18. hATa kaMbari
19. jhaMkAra dhvani 20. naTa bhairavi 21. keeravANi
22. kharahara priya 23. gaUrI manOhari 24. varuNa priya
25. mAra ranjani 26. cArukESi 27. sarasAMgi
28. hari kAMbhOji 29. dheera SankarAbharaNaM 30. nAgA naMdini
31. yAga priya 32. rAga vardhini 33. gAMgEya bhUshiNi
34. vAga dheeSvari 35. SUlini 36. calanATa
37. sAlagamu 38. jalArNavamu 39. jhUla varAli
40. navaneeta 41. pAvani 42. raghu priya
43. gavAMbhOdhi 44. bhavapriya 45. Subha pantuvarALi
46. sha dvidha mArgiNi 47. suvarNAMgi 48. divyamaNi
49. dhavaLAMbari 50. nAmanArAyaNi 51. kAmavardhani
52. rAmapriya 53. gamana Srama 54. viSvaMbari
55. SyAmalAMgi 56. shaNmukhapriya 57. siMhEndra madhyama
58. hEmavati 59. dharmavati 60. neetimati
61. kAntAmaNi 62. rishabhapriya 63. latAMgi
64. vAcaspati 65. mEcakaLyANi 66. citrAMbari
67. sucaritramu 68. jyOti svarUpiNi 69. dhAtuvardhani
70. nAsikA bhUshiNi 71. kOsala 72. rasika priya

Here are some of the very popular 'rAgAs' along with their 'mELakarta rAgAs', from which they are derived.
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janya rAgAs Number & Name of mELakarta rAga
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kAnaDa, darbAr, mukhAri, madhyamAvati, kApi,
Sree, Sree raMjani, abhOgi, Suddha dhanyAsi 22. kharahara priya

dhanyAsi, punnAga varALi, bhUpAlam,
tODi, aSAvEri 8. hanumattODi

sAvEri, vasanta, baULi, malahari, mAruvA,
nAda nAmakriya, pharazu 15. mAyA mALava gaULa

mOhana, sAma, kAMbhOji, yadukula kAMbhOji,
kadana kutUhalamu, khamAsu, nATakuraMji,
neelAMbari, SyAma, Sahana, kEdAra gaULa 28. Hari kAMbhOji

kEdAra, aThANa, Arabhi, SaMkarAbharaNam,
dEva gAMdhAri, biLahari, bEgaDa, mAnD, 29. dheera
haMsadhvani,neelAMbari, Suddha sAvEri SaMkarAbharaNaM

hindOLamu, abhEri, jayanta Sree,bhairavi,
naTa bhairavi, Ananda bhairavi, reeti gaULa 20. naTa bhairavi

sindhu bhairavi 10. nATaka priya

amRta varshiNi, varALi 39. jhUla varALi

kaLyANi, yamunA kaLyANi, hameer kaLyANi 65. mEca kaLyANi

pUrvee kaLyANi, haMsAnandi 53. gamana Srama

keeravANi, kalyANa vasantamu 21. keeravANi

malayamArutamu, kaLAvati, cakravAkamu 16. cakravAkamu
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The 7 types of 'tALAs' of Carnatic music:

1. dhRva, 2. maThya, 3. rUpaka, 4. jhampe, 5. tripuTa, 6. Ata, 7. Eka

Each one of them have 5 sub-types.

tRiSra jAti; caturaSra jAti; khanDa jAti; miSra jAti; saMkeerNa jAti

With regards,
Prabhakar Vissavajjhala

P.S.: Ref.:'krotta saMgeeta vidyA darpaNamu' by 'Sree ekA subbA rAu'.